1. Training on board real ships: the environment is obviously realistic, but the time spent and the acceptable risks are limited.
2. Training on manned models: manoeuvres can be pushed beyond the safety limits and ships sail on real water, but there is limited reproduction of the captain’s vision and of wind conditions.
3. Training on numerical simulators: the water and ships are simply equations, but the bridge and 360° vision are realistic enough to simulate Bridge Team Management and crisis management.
"... a pilot can never afford to be complacent, careless, or lazy ... pilots are human, and humans make mistakes. In that respect, accidents are, unfortunately, inevitable. But can we do more to minimize mistakes and reduce the number of accidents? Are we training enough? Is it the right kind of training? ..."
Captain Michael R. Watson, President of IMPA, President of APA.